Ink dating uk
For example, if transfers of ink are found on several pages of a diary, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a longer period as suggested by the dates.Ink and Toner Intersections – When a signature (or a handwritten notation) intersects a printed text on a document, a forensic document examiner may be asked which came first, the text or the signature (handwritten notation).Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC 2000HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations.Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent.These two ink aging methods are the Sequential Extraction Technique (SET) and Solvent Loss Ratio Method (SLRM).The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Care must be taken when inks are deemed to be indistinguishable using any testing method.When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied.Nevertheless, other methods for providing relative dating of documents can be carried out.An example of this is the relative sequencing between two different ink strokes (i.e. Examination of the intersection between the ink strokes or the intersection between an ink stroke and an indented impression may provide evidence as to the order in which they were written.
On occasions, Ellen Radley also undertakes Legally Aided matters, caseload permitting.